Deficits from traditionalism
The first nexus of risk comes from combining (i) ideological and religious violence and (ii) scientific illiteracy. These risks create a potent combination of challenges that are manifest, most notably, in the 'arc of violence, stretching across North Africa, through the Levant in to South Asia. Presently and most visibly, they are manifest in the Syrian civil war and in the profound violence in Iran and Afghanistan. But the reach of these risks is not limited to the Muslim world.