A long habit of not thinking a thing wrong gives it a superficial appearance of being right.
— Thomas Paine, Common Sense, 1775

Industries develop 'patterns' of competition; emerging technologies and disruptive competitors are no respecters of tradition. Firms can change or be changed.


Today, few firms compete solely domestically; tomorrow even fewer. Industries are no longer 'national'. 

Competitive intensity

Technology is redefining the boundaries of industries without respect for historic performance.

Emerging technologies

New technologies will alter existing industries in radical ways. But that does not mean firms cannot predict trends in technology.


Firms are facing disruption to their business models from all parts of the competitive network, as well as from outside it.